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Glossary of Geology

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A
Ag means the chemical symbol of silver, from its Latin name "Argentum";
alteration chemical and mineralogical changes in a rock mass resulting from reaction with hydrothermal fluids or changes in pressure and temperature;
anomalous adjective describing a sample, location or area at which either (i) the concentration of an element(s) or (ii) a geophysical measurement is significantly different from (generally higher than) the average background concentrations in an area. Though it may not constitute mineralization, an anomalous sample or area may be used as a guide to the possible location of mineralization;
anomaly an area defined by one or more anomalous points;
Antimony A trivalent and pentavalent metalloid element that is commonly metallic silvery white, crystalline, and brittle yet rather soft;
assay an analysis of the contents of metals in mineralized rocks;
Au Gold;
B
breccias a coarse grained rock composed of large, >2mm angular rock fragments that have been cemented together in a fine grained matrix;
C
CIM Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum;
cretaceous system of rocks, and sedimentary deposits of the third and last period of the Mesozoic Era;
concentrates to separate ore or metal from its containing rock or earth;
D
deposit a mineralized body which has been physically delineated by drilling, trenching and/or underground work and may contain a sufficient average grade of metal or metals to warrant further exploration and/or development expenditures; such a deposit does not qualify as a commercially mineable ore body until final technical, legal and economic factors have been resolved;
diamond drill holes a drilling method whereby rock is drilled with a diamond impregnated, hollow drilling bit which produces a continuous, in-situ record of the rock mass intersected in the form of solid cylinders of rock which are referred to as core;
F
fault or block fault a fracture in a rock across which there has been displacement. Block faults are usually steep, and break the earth’s crust into "blocks" that are displaced vertically and/or laterally relative to each other;
E
epithermal Pertaining to mineral veins and ore deposits formed from warm waters at shallow depth, at temperatures ranging from 50-200°C, and generally at some distance from the magmatic source;
G
g/t unit of grade expressed in grams/tonne;
gangue the non economic portion of ore;
geophysical the use of geophysical instruments and methods to determine subsurface conditions by analysis of such properties as specific gravity, electrical conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility;
gouge a thin layer of soft earthy putty-like rock material along the containing wall of a mineral vein;
grade the amount of valuable mineral in each tone of ore, expressed as ounces per ton or grams per tonne for precious metal and as a percentage by weight for other metals;
H
hydrothermal of or pertaining to heated water, to the action of heated water, or to the products of the action of heated water;
I
Indicated Mineral Resource Part of a Mineral Resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics, can be estimated with a level of confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical and economic parameters, to support mine planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed and reliable exploration and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, working and drill holes that are spaced closely enough for geological and grade continuity to be reasonably assumed;
Inferred Mineral Resource Part of a mineral Resource for which quantity and grade or quality can be estimated on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling and reasonably assumed, but not verified, geological and grade continuity. The estimate is based on limited information and sampling gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes;
L
limestone A sedimentary rock consisting of chiefly >50% calcium carbonate;
M
mineralization the process or processes by which a mineral or minerals are introduced into a rock, resulting in an economically valuable or potentially valuable deposit;
Measured Mineral Resource Part of a Mineral Resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics are so well established that they can be estimated with confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical and economic parameters, to support production planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes that are spaced closely enough to confirm both geological and grade continuity;
Mineral Reserve The economically minable part of a measured mineral resource or indicated mineral resource demonstrated by at least a preliminary feasibility study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be justified. A mineral reserve includes diluting minerals and allowances for losses that may occur when the material is mined;
Mineral Resource A concentration or occurrence of natural, solid, inorganic or fossilized organic material in or on the earth’s crust in such form and quantity and of such a grade or quality that it has reasonable prospects for economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade, geological characteristics and continuity of a mineral resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge;
O
outcrop an exposure on the surface of the underlying rock;
oz Troy ounce consisting of 31.1035 grams;
P
Pb Lead;
Preliminary Feasibility Study Comprehensive study of the viability of a mineral project that has advanced to a stage where the mining, or the pit configuration, in the case of an open pit, has been established and an effective method of mineral processing has been determined, and includes a financial analysis based on reasonable assumptions of technical, engineering, legal, operating, economic, social, and environmental factors and the evaluation of other relevant factors which are sufficient for a Qualified Person, acting reasonably, to determine if all or part of the Mineral Resource may be classified as a Mineral Reserve;
Probable Mineral Reserve The economically mineable part of an Indicated and, in some circumstances, a Measured Mineral Resource demonstrated by at least a Preliminary Feasibility study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic, and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be justified;
Proven Mineral Reserve The economically mineable part of a Measured Mineral Resource demonstrated by at least a Preliminary Feasibility Study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction is justified;
Pyrite A sulphide mineral of iron and sulphur;
Pyroclastic refers to a sedimentary rock composed or airborne volcanic material from a volcanic eruption;
Q
Qualified Person an individual who is an engineer or geoscientist with at least five years experience in mineral exploration, mine development, production activities and project assessment, or any combination thereof, including experience relevant to the subject matter of the project or report and is a member in good standing of an approved self-regulating organization;
Quartz A common rock-forming mineral comprised of silicon and oxygen (SiO2);
S
sample a sample of selected rock chips from within an area of interest;
Sandstone A medium grained clastic sedimentary rock;
Sb Antimony;
sedimentary formed by the deposition of solid fragmented material that originates from weathering of rocks and is transported from a source to a site of disposition;
sedimentary rock A rock that has been formed by the consolidation of loose sediment that has accumulated in layers;
siliciclastic pertaining to clastic noncarbonate rocks which are almost exclusively silicon-bearing, either as forms of quartz or as silicates;
strike the direction or trend that a structural surface takes as it intersects the horizontal;
Sulphide a class of minerals commonly combining various elements in varying ratios with a sulphur;
T
tertiary system of rocks, or sedimentary deposits of the first period of the Cenozoic Era;
tonne metric unit of weight consisting of 1000 kilograms;
triassic the period of geological time from 225 to 195 million years before present;
V
vein A tabular mineral deposit formed in or adjacent to faults or fractures by the deposition of minerals from hydrothermal fluids;
veinlet A small vein; the distinction between vein and veinlet tends to be subjective;
volcanic pertaining to the activity, structures or rock types of a volcano;

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